HAIR LOSS — CAUSES
Hair loss can come from many different causes. It is of course necessary, before anything, to find the exact origin, in order to be able to offer the best treatment.
Androgenetic alopecia / baldness :
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) commonly known as baldness is an alopecia characterized by progressive thinning of the hair, a process commonly called "miniaturization". This miniaturization is of genetic and hormonal origin, it is caused by androgens (= male hormones). It occurs in a very precise location.
Androgenetic alopecia is the natural aging of hair but unfortunately the process is sometimes faster than it should be and then it becomes pathological.
AGA is the most common cause of alopecia for both men and women, and its prevalence increases with age. It is currently estimated that 80% of men and 42% of women suffer from it at 70 years of age. The importance of AGA, in addition to its prevalence and irreversibility, lies in the psychosocial impact it generates. Indeed, most women and men who suffer from it have diminished self-esteem and a lower quality of life.
TE is a reactional hair loss, that is, in relation to one or more environmental factors. It usually appears between 1 and 3 months after the triggering event. It is a diffuse fall that can sometimes reach 30% of the hair. The origin of TE can be traced back to hormones, nutrition, deficiencies, drugs or psychological reasons.
Alopecia areata :
Alopecia areata is a common condition that affects between 1 to 3% of the world's population. It causes total alopecia in well defined areas. It is an autoimmune disease caused by a disfunction in our immune system. It gets carried away and starts to produce white blood cells that attack the hair bulbs, as they attack a bacterium. The growth is stopped and hair falls. The bulb is not destroyed and at the end of the disease, the hair grows back identically. The most frequent spontaneous evolution is a total regrowth after a few months, first in the form of a discreet white fuzz then later by the same hair as those who had fallen.
Cicatricial alopecia :
Cicatricial alopecia are characterized by an inflammatory process that causes an irreversible destruction of the follicular lust, making regrowth impossible. Clinically, the scalp is smooth with disappearance of follicular ostia and sometimes areas of sclerosis. A biopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis.
- Lymphocytic cicatricial alopecia:
lichen planar plane, fibrotic frontal alopecia, lupus, pseudopelade of brocq, central vertex centrifugal cicatricial alopecia
- Neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia
Decalcific folliculitis of Quinquaud, dissecting cellulitis of the scalp
- Mixed alopecia
cheloid acne of the neck, erosive pustulosis of the scalp
EA is a sudden stop of hair growth in the anagen phase, without going through the telogen phase. The fall is acute and affects more than 90% of the hair. The two most common causes are radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Trichotillomania, or trichomania, is a disorder in humans characterized by compulsive tearing of one's own hair and / or bodyhair. This leads to an alopecia that can eventually, after many years, become definitive. Two peaks of frequency are found in children: around 2-3 years and 10-12 years, but the pathology can also be found in adulthood. In some cases, psychotherapy may be offered.
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) was described for the first time in 1994. It is characterized by cicatricial alopecia of the frontal implantation line. Alopecia of the eyebrows is frequently associated, as is alopecia of the pubis, face and hair. The clinical and histological features evoke the hair lichen, and the FFA is actually considered as a particular pattern of LPP. FFA most often affect postmenopausal women, but cases have been described in both men and young women. This disease has increased dramatically in recent years, becoming the leading cause of cicatricial alopecia. The pathophysiology remains unknown however scientists agree that it is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In recent years some studies have involved the chemical sunscreens used in solar creams, without this being yet formally proven.